Toe Walker (Equinus)
Walking on the ball of the foot or toes, which is also referred to as toe walking, is something that is fairly common in children just learning to walk. Children who continue to walk on their tiptoes or ball of their feet past their toddler years frequently do it because the muscles and tendons in their calves have become tighter over time. Treatment for persistent toe walking often involves a period of casting or bracing to help stretch the muscles and tendons in the calves and encourage a normal gait. For children who are 2 to 5 years old and able to walk flat-footed, initial treatment is always nonsurgical. In toe-walking children over the age of 5, the calf muscles and Achilles tendons may be so tight that walking flat-footed is not possible. For these patients, a surgical procedure to lengthen the Achilles tendon is recommended. Lengthening the tendons will improve range of motion and allow better function of the foot and ankle.
Subtalar Joint Arthoeresis
A surgical procedure can be performed in order to correct and treat a flexible flatfoot deformity mainly in children. Subtalar Joint Arthoeresis is a minimally-invasive procedure accomplished by inserting an implant in the subtalar joint, which is collapsed in a flat foot. By adding this implant it forces the foot to invert and an arch is created. It can be performed as a standalone procedure or in combination with other procedures.
In-toeing is when your child's foot points inward instead of straight ahead when he or she runs or walks. It is commonly referred to as being "pigeon-toed." For most toddlers, in-toeing is painless and can be normal. Three conditions that can cause intoeing include metatarsus adductus (the foot turns inward), tibial torsion (the shinbone turns inward), and femoral anteversion (the thighbone turns inward). In-toeing can be corrected with bracing and custom made orthotics.
Is a condition in which there is one or more abnormally short toe bones (metatarsals). This condition may result due to a congenital defect or it may be an acquired condition. It most frequently involves the fourth metatarsal. If it involves the first metatarsal, the condition is known as Morton's syndrome. Treatment is via a number of differing surgical procedures all performed to increase the length of the bone so that it can look aesthetically and functionally correct.