Achilles tendinitis is caused by overuse of the band of tissues that connects the lower region of your calf muscle to your heel bone, also known as your Achilles tendon. Those at a higher risk for Achilles tendinitis are runners engaging in intense training or middle-aged people who participate in sports on occasion.
A sprained ankle occurs when you twist your ankle in an abnormal way causing the ligaments holding your ankle bones together to stretch or tear. Most sprained ankles involve injuries to the ligaments on the outer side of the ankle. Treatment for a sprained ankle depends on the severity of the injury. Although you may just need proper rest and pain medications to heal, it is important to have the sprain looked at by a professional to determine the severity and proper treatment.
Arthritis is a general term for diseases that involve inflammation and swelling in and around your joints due to the bones rubbing and wear against each other. Ankle arthritis becomes more and more painful as the patient loses the smooth "cushioning" cartilage inside the ankle joint. As a result, soft tissues in your joints also may begin to wear down. After some time, the joint might not work or move the way it should.
There are many types of Arthritis that can affect the ankle joint including Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Gout, Psoriatic Arthritis and Post-Traumatic Arthritis.
Symptoms often include: tenderness when you touch the joint, pain when you move it, trouble moving, walking or putting weight on it, joint Stiffness, warmth or swelling and more pain and swelling after you rest, such as sitting or sleeping.
Conservative Treatments may include: stretching and exercises, anti-inflammatory drugs, pain relievers, custom molded orthotics, custom fitted shoes, braces, physical therapy, steroid Injections, and prolotherapy.
Surgical Treatments may be required in more severe cases including Ankle Fusions and Joint Replacement Surgery.
A fracture of the ankle is a break or multiple breaks in one or more of the three bones that make up the ankle joint, the tibia (shinbone), the fibula (outer bone of the lower leg), and the talus (one of the bones of the foot). There are many different types of ankle fractures that require a variety of treatments ranging from immobilization and offloading to surgical intervention.
Sometimes called Foot Drop, is a general term for difficulty lifting the front part of the foot. If you have dropfoot, the front of your foot might drag on the ground when you walk. Dropfoot isn't a disease but it is a sign of an underlying neurological, muscular or anatomical problem. Dropfoot can be temporary, but it can also be a permanent problem which can make walking challenging. It may happen from a trauma or surgical procedure. There are many treatment options, ranging from braces to physical therapy to surgery. They may not completely restore a normal gait, but many times they may reduce symptoms significantly and make walking easier.
Tendons are thick bands of connective tissue that connect bones and muscles and allow the muscles to move your bones. Within each foot, there are several tendons, the most notable of which are the Achilles tendon (also known as the calcaneal tendon) and the peroneal tendons. The Achilles connects your calf muscle to your foot, and the peroneals run alongside one another behind the ankle bone before going separate ways to the outer part of your midfoot and underneath to the arch.
Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction
The posterior tibial tendon is one of the most important tendons of the leg. A tendon attaches muscles to bones, and the posterior tibial tendon attaches the calf muscle to the bones on the inside of the foot. The main function of the tendon is to hold up the arch and support the foot when walking. (PTTD) is a condition caused by changes in the tendon, impairing its ability to support the arch. This results in flattening of the foot. PTTD is often called adult acquired flatfoot because it is the most common type of flatfoot developed during adulthood. There are four stages of PTTD, each needing different types of conservative and surgical treatment, ranging from custome orthotics, custome bracing, injections, surgical repair of the tendon, reconstructive flatfoot repair to fusions.